Clinical Toolkit by Region


World  Health Organization (WHO) – Responding to Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Against Women Clinical and Policy Guidelines: 

These guidelines are an unprecedented effort to equip healthcare providers with evidence-based guidance as to how to respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. They also provide advice for policy makers, encouraging better coordination and funding of services, and greater attention to responding to sexual violence and partner violence within training programmes for health care providers.

The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover:

  • identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence
  • clinical care for sexual assault
  • training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women
  • policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services
  • mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence.

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International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)

The FIGO Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health considers the ethical aspects of issues that impact the discipline of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health. The following documents represent the result of that carefully researched and considered discussion. This material is intended to provide material for consideration and debate about these ethical aspects of our discipline for member organizations and their constituent membership.

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End Violence Against Women International

EVAWI envisions a world where gender-based violence is unacceptable; where perpetrators are held accountable, and victims receive the compassion, support, and justice they deserve. As a professional training organization, EVAWI offers a broad portfolio of resources to improve criminal justice and community responses to gender-based violence.

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Violence Against Women & Girls – VAWG

This resource guide draws on existing global evidence and emerging promising practices. It should be noted, however, that the vast majority of the evidence (80%) on what works to prevent or respond to VAWG comes from high-income countries, according to a recent systematic review of reviews on this topic by GWI and WBG.1 The review also found that less than a quarter of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies assessed interventions in developing countries. Nonetheless, the current evidence, combined with promising initiatives, provides robust entry points for action while the insufficiency of data is overcome.

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CECI – Gender Equality

In its mission and values statement, CECI places the principle of equity in human relations at the centre of its vision and its action. We believe in human dignity and equality before the law, and we work to establish equity between women and men both in society at large and within our own organization. In order to concretize and entrench these values, CECI has adopted a gender equality policy and a specific strategic orientation for our 2008–2013 plan. CECI relies on an institutional gender equality committee, a team of gender equality specialists, and anetwork of volunteer resources, whose role is to advise CECI’s partners and project teams on these issues.

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North America:

(Canada,  United States)

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists is a membership organization dedicated to the advancement of women’s health care and the professional and socioeconomic interests of its members through continuing medical education, practice, research, and advocacy. The Congress, as the premier organization for obstetricians and gynecologists and providers of women’s health care, will provide the highest quality education worldwide, continuously improve health care for women through practice and research, lead advocacy for women’s health care issues nationally and internationally, and provide excellent organizational support and services for our members.
As an organization dedicated to the advancement of women’s health care and the betterment of our membership, we value:

  • Access for all women to high quality safe health care
  • Professionalism to our membership as manifested in high ethical standards, collegiality, communication, mentoring, leadership development, diversity and life-long learning
  • Scholarship in medical science through health research and education
  • Advocacy for women and our members in our role as the authority on the specialty and on women’s health information for patients, providers, organizations and governments

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The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC)

The SOGC is one of Canada’s oldest national specialty organizations. Established in 1944, the Society’s mission is to promote excellence in the practice of obstetrics and gynaecology and to advance the health of women through leadership, advocacy, collaboration, and education. The SOGC has over 3,500 members, comprised of obstetricians, gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, and allied health professionals working in the field of sexual reproductive health. A leading authority on reproductive health care, the SOGC produces national clinical guidelines for both public and medical education on important women’s health issues. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada granted the SOGC full accreditation as a Continued Professional Development provider for physicians and health care providers in Canada. The Society offers an impressive portfolio of professional educational activities including the Annual Clinical and Scientific Conference, Continuing Medical Education Programs, e-learning modules and its trailblazing MOREOB patient safety program.

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The Division of Violence Prevention – CDC

In 1979, violent behavior was identified by the U.S. Surgeon General as a key public health priority. Shortly thereafter, in 1980, CDC began studying patterns of violence. These early activities grew into a national program to reduce the death and disability associated with injuries outside the workplace. In 1992, CDC established the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) as the lead federal organization for violence prevention. The Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is one of three divisions within NCIPC. The Division’s mission is to prevent injuries and deaths caused by violence.
DVP is committed to stopping violence before it begins (i.e., primary prevention). The division’s work involves:

  • Monitoring violence-related injuries
  • Conducting research on the factors that put people at risk or protect them from violence
  • Creating and evaluating the effectiveness of violence prevention programs
  • Helping state and local partners plan, implement, and evaluate prevention programs
  • Conducting research on the effective adoption and dissemination of prevention strategies

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United States Department of Justice Office on Violence Against Women

The mission of the Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), a component of the U.S. Department of Justice, is to provide federal leadership in developing the national capacity to reduce violence against women and administer justice for and strengthen services to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking.

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Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse

The Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse was established in 1994 by the Minnesota State Legislature with a charge “to improve the quality of higher education related to violence.” During its first years, the Center’s initial and only project was the Violence Education Project. The project included a discipline-specific needs assessment about higher education, a web- based library of educational resources, a grant program to fund the development of new violence-related higher education curricula, higher education conferences, and worked to change continuing education and licensing requirements.

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Women Against Violence Against Women

WAVAW Rape Crisis Centre works to end all forms of violence against women. Guided by our feminist anti-oppression philosophy we challenge and change thinking, actions, and systems that contribute to violence against women. We provide all women who have experienced any form of sexualized violence with support and healing, and engage with youth to develop leadership for prevention of future violence.

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Violence Against Women on the Internet

The development of the Internet has had a profound effect on violence against women. It has facilitated the dissemination of child pornography, the commodification of women’s bodies, and stalking. On the other hand, the Internet can be used to organize and unite people interested in social and political change. The goals of this cybercourse are twofold – to become more aware of the forms that violence against women can take on the Internet and to use the Internet to develop a community that can respond to these issues and take action. In this series, we will explore the various ways in which violence against women is facilitated through the use of the Internet, as well as ways in which the Internet may be used as a site of resistance to such violence.

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Latin America

(Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru)

Nobel Women’s Initiative

The Vision of the Nobel Women’s Initiative is a world transformed, a nonviolent world of security, equality and well-being for all. United by our desire to combat all forms of violence against women in all circumstances, we also recognize that specific issues for women vary around the world. One element of our work is to sponsor international gatherings of women every two years — in a different region of the world — to highlight issues of concern to women there. The objective of these meetings is to underscore our commonalities and differences by providing inclusive and energizing forums that ensure meaningful dialogue and networking by women’s rights activists around the world — but with a view to action.

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Policies For Women Brazil

The House of the Brazilian woman is an innovation in humanized assistance to women. Integrated in the same space specialized services for different types of violence against women: reception and screening; psychosocial support;police station; court; Prosecutor, Public Defender; promotion of economic independence; care of children – playroom; housing passage and central transport. The house, one of the axes of the Women program, Living without Violence , coordinated by the Secretariat on Policies for Women of the Presidency of the Republic, facilitates access to specialized services to ensure coping conditions of violence, women’s empowerment and their economic autonomy. It is a definite step state for recognition of the right of women to live without violence.

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Just Associates (JASS) – Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala

JASS believes that women who are most affected by the political, economic, environmental and health crises reverberating across the world are on the frontlines of change.  While they rarely have a seat at the decision-making table, they are organizing their communities, developing solutions and promoting justice—often at great risk for going against the grain. As a global women-led human rights network of activists, popular educators and scholars in 31 countries, we work to ensure women leaders are more confident, better organized, louder and safer as they take on some of the most critical human rights issues of our time.

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Inter-American Commission of Women & Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (OAS) brings together the nations of the Western hemisphere to promote democracy, strengthen human rights, foster peace, security and cooperation and advance common interests. The origins of the Organization date back to 1890 when nations of the region formed the Pan American Union to forge closer hemispheric relations. This union later evolved into the OAS and in 1948, 21 nations signed its governing charter. Since then, the OAS has expanded to include the nations of the English-speaking Caribbean and Canada, and today all of the independent nations of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean make up its 35 member states. The Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) is the main hemispheric policy forum for the promotion of women’s rights and gender equality. Created in 1928 – in recognition of the importance of women’s social inclusion to democratic strengthening and human development in the Americas – CIM was the first intergovernmental organization established to promote women’s human rights and gender equality.

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Northern Europe

(Denmark, Finland, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Iceland)

Council of Europe on Violence Against Women

This document was put together to recognize the structural nature of violence against women as gender‐based violence, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men among other crucial facts, and aspiring to create a Europe free from violence against women and domestic violence.

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Danish Initiative to Stop Violence Against Women

The Danish initiatives to combat Violence against women has since 2002 been outlined in National Action Plans. In 2002, the Government’s first action plan to combat violence against women was launched (2002-2004). The first action plan contributed to breaking the taboo surrounding domestic violence against women, but there is a need for maintaining focus on the problem.

The activities of the Action Plan for 2005-2008 focus on prevention and the integration of the initiatives within the four main areas of concern:

· Support for the victims,
· Activities targeted at the perpetrator,
· Activities targeted at professionals,
· Development and promotion of knowledge and information.

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The Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG)

The RCOG works to improve women’s health care across the world. Founded in 1929, we now have over 12,500 members worldwide and work with a range of partners both in the UK and globally to improve the standard of care delivered to women, encourage the study of obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G), and advance the science and practice of O&G.

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Rape Crisis Scotland

Rape Crisis Scotland (RCS) is the national office for the rape crisis movement in Scotland. We support the work of local centres and develop new centres in areas where there are no or few specialist services. We also work with other agencies such as the police, Crown Office and health services providing training and consultancy to improve the response to those who are affected by and who perpetrate sexual violence. Through our campaigns, briefings and publications we raise awareness of sexual violence, challenge attitudes and press for legal change.

The Rape Crisis Scotland National Helpline provides crisis support for anyone in Scotland affected by sexual violence at any time in their lives.

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Central Europe

(Austria, Bulgaria, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania,Switzerland)

The Police on Gender Equality in Germany

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this note provides an overview of the gender-equality legislation and policies in Germany, focussing on their recent developments and achievements. It reviews gender equality in decision-making, in employment, reconciliation of private and professional life, strategies to combat violence against women and sexual and reproductive health rights. Germany has achieved some progress in gender equality, mainly in the area of employment. European legislation has acted as the main driver for legal improvements in equal treatment and anti-discrimination.

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Violence Against Women in Switzerland – White Ribbon Campaign

The White Ribbon campaign was started in order to galvanize men to stand up to domestic violence, as well as recognize the many mediums and manifestations domestic violence can take shape in.

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Stop Violence Against Women – Bulgaria

Although statistics are difficult to come by due to underreporting by victims and a lack of accurate statistics from police, prosecutors, judges or other service providers, the U.S. Department of State reported that one in four women have been victims of domestic violence in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian accession to the EU on 1 January 2007 required important changes to existing Bulgarian legislation and new legislation with a view toward equal treatment for women and men and the protection of women’s rights in general. In this respect, significant laws aimed at improving women’s rights in the country have been adopted in recent years. At the same time, the Bill on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men was twice rejected by the National Assembly in 2002 and 2003. Although a new draft of this Bill was adopted by the Council of Ministers in 2006, it has not passed through the National Assembly.

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Women’s Fund of Georgia

Women’s Fund in Georgia is the first locally established grantmaking organization which supports women’s groups’ activities and initiatives for social changes in Georgia. The mission of Women’s Fund in Georgia is empowering women in Georgia for protection of their rights, full self-realization and participation in society’s life through providing financial and technical support, capacity building and development of feminist philanthropy. The vision of Women’s Fund in Georgia is strong, equal, recognized and happy women in free, safe and just world. Women’s Fund in Georgia is set up by the Educational Cooperation and Development Center. The fund is registered at the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Georgia on May 24, 2005. The Educational Cooperation and Development Center (ECDC) has been working on local philanthropy development specifically focusing on women’s issues for seven years. Priorities of the Women’s Fund in Georgia: protecting women’s rights, improving women’s economic opportunities, assisting women living in conflict zones, promoting legislative initiatives, raising awareness of gender issues, increasing sensitivity of the community towards women’s issues, and supporting women’s movement building.


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Sexual Violence Research Initiative

The Sexual Violence Research Initiative is a global research initiative that promotes good quality research in the area of sexual violence, particularly in low and middle income countries. We are building an experienced and committed network of researchers, policy makers, activists and donors to ensure that the many aspects of sexual violence are addressed from the perspective of different disciplines and cultures. The SVRI believes that prevention efforts and service provision must be informed by sound research and evidence.

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Southern Europe

(Belgium, France, Greece, Italy)

International Center for the Prevention of Crime

The issue of women’s safety is indeed a global one, transcending borders and impacting people at all levels, including governments, policymakers, non-governmental organisations and citizens. In 2006, the United Nations Secretary General’s report In-depth Study of all Forms of Violence Against Women emphasised that violence against women in the world constitutes a human rights violation, and continues to be an obstacle to reaching gender equality. Lack of safety and fear of crime have particular impacts on women and on their ability to take advantage of their right to be able to participate in and move around freely in society. Women’s activities are often limited as a consequence of insecurity and risk of violence, inhibiting daily activities such as going to work, their ability to use certain public spaces, or to go out at night. It also affects their freedom to be financially independent, and all of this has implications for their children and families. The recent death of the senior policewoman who was head of the department of crimes against women in Kandahar, Afghanistan, testifies to the difficulties facing women in some countries when they work to assert the rights of women

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Belgium – Gender and Women’s Rights

The UN has a Commission on the Status of Women that deals both with issues to do with being female as well as ‘gender mainstreaming’ (i.e. taking account of the gender dimension in various policies and actions). The Commission is also responsible for monitoring compliance with the Declaration and the Action Programme adopted in Beijing and ensuring their implementation. Belgium has been an active member of the Commission for several (consecutive) years and also chaired it between 2007 and 2009. This commitment demonstrates the high importance attributed by our country to this problematic and multifaceted issue. The UN General Assembly also discusses several resolutions on the rights of women and girls. Belgium is calling for the promotion and protection of women’s rights within the framework of the resolutions adopted by various UN bodies, like the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Human Rights Council and various specialist UN agencies and funds. First and foremost, Belgium wants to ensure that sexual and reproductive rights are respected and to combat impunity and guarantee good governance, in a bid to safeguard women’s rights to protection and development. Belgium also attributes great importance to the mandate of the UN’s special rapporteur on violence against women.

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UN Women – Global Database on Violence against Women

In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a comprehensive resolution calling for intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women and requesting the Secretary-General to establish a coordinated database on the extent, nature and consequences of all forms of violence against women, and on the impact and effectiveness of policies and programmes for eliminating such violence. The database was developed and launched in 2009, and was called the “UN Secretary-General’s database on violence against women”. In 2016, in accordance with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, UN Women updated and redesigned the database and relaunched it as the “Global Database on Violence against Women”. UN Women serves as the secretariat for the database.
The Database is Designed to:

  • Provide easy access to comprehensive and up-to-date information on measures undertaken by Governments to address all forms of violence against women;
  • Increase opportunities for exchange of experiences in addressing violence against women;
  • Strengthen the knowledge-base for effective policy responses to prevent and address violence against women; and
  • Encourage the further collection, availability, use and dissemination of data on violence against women, as well as analysis of such data.

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The Police on Gender Equality in Italy

Upon request of the FEMM committee, this note provides an overview of the existing gender-equality legislation and policies in Italy, focussing on their recent developments and achievements in the last decades. It discusses gender equality in employment, reconciliation of work and family life, presence of women in decision-making positions, recent measures to fight violence against women, and health and reproductive rights. Italy is still far from reaching satisfactory results, in spite of relevant progress under the pressure of women’s movement, civil society and European legislation.

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Africa & the Near East:

(Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia)

Association for Reproductive & Family Health (ARFH)

ARFH is one of the leading indigenous non-profit organisations in Nigeria committed improving the quality of life of underserved and vulnerable communities by promoting access to quality health care and harnessing community capacities for sustainable development. The Association for Reproductive and Family Health (ARFH) is a national, non-governmental organization established in 1989 and registered in 1991. The organization has her headquarters in Ibadan and 3 other offices in Abuja, Kaduna and Katsina. Our mission is to initiate promote and implement in partnership with other organizations, developmental, HIV & AIDS, SRH and family planning program and interventions for young people and adult through capacity building, technical assistance, operations research, and evaluation to improve the quality of life in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa. These programmes focus on mobilizing people for behavioural and attitudinal changes that promote best sexual and reproductive health practices in order to reduce diseases burden particularly STI, HIV & AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis which are currently devastating families and communities globally and Nigeria in particular.

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Rwanda Women Network

Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN) is a humanitarian, non-profit making, non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to promotion and improvement of the socio-economic welfare of women and their communities in Rwanda through enhancing their efforts to meet their basic needs.

The Network came into being in 1997 taking over from its parent organisation, the US-based Church World Service (CWS), which had initiated a two-year program (1994 – 1996) in the country following the genocide in 1994.

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The National Council for Women – Egypt

Egyptian women who participated in the revolution are capable of recognizing that any attempt to limit or marginalize their role contradicts with the logic of life and the movement of history as the future can only be built through all the forces of the community and its social brackets, within a framework of respect for the moral values, the constitution and the law.

  1.  NCW’s Vision: to improve the human and socio-economic conditions of Egyptian women and to increase the ratio of their participation in the development of their local communities and hence the development of society as a whole.
  2. NCW’s Mission: to have an effective partnership and role in formulating policies and programs related to women’s advancement and the sustainability of their development, as well as defining their active roles which support their participation in bringing about the positive transformation of their society at all levels.

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People Opposing Women Abuse

POWA is a “feminist, women’s rights organisation that provides both services, and engages in advocacy in order to ensure the realisation of women’s rights and thereby improve women’s quality of life”.

POWA’s uniqueness as an organisation is in providing both services to survivors and engaging in advocacy using a feminist and intersectional analysis. Our work is rooted in the belief that change can only be said to be effective when women’s lives are directly improved through our interventions. We also believe that there is no single route to change, and thus constantly seek new and creative approaches in our programming to achieve the change we seek.

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South African Government

Government hosts an on-going campaign to voice our anger against violence against women and children. We have to find ways of making our homes and communities safe for all, especially for women and children. Violence against women takes many forms – physical, sexual, economic, psychological – but all of these represent a violation of human dignity and human rights and have lasting consequences both for women themselves and for their communities. Research shows that domestic violence against women remains widespread and under-reported, and that victims of violence are not effectively supported by public services. Insufficient specialised services for women and children who are victims of violence and the absence of professional services to victims is only a few of the reasons for non-reporting.

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Central Asia

(India, Thailand)

Asia & Oceania Federation of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (AOFOG)

The objects of the Federation are:
(a) to promote the development of science and assist in scientific research work, relating to all fields pertaining to gynaecology and obstetrics, to further the attainment, by all appropriate means, of a higher level of physical and mental health of women, mothers and their children, to develop and improve the exchange of information and ideas in the field of gynaecology and obstetrics, to contribute to the research of fresh knowledge in this field, to contribute to the improvement of teaching standards in the profession, to promote international co-operation and facilitate relationships between national medical bodies of the profession.
(b) to recommend a common policy in regard to these matters on the proposal of member societies.
(c) to represent member societies whenever joint scientific action can be pursued in such matters.

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Ministry of Women & Child Development

The broad mandate of the Ministry is to have holistic development of Women and Children. As a nodal Ministry for the advancement of women and children, the Ministry formulates plans, policies and programmes; enacts/ amends legislation, guides and coordinates the efforts of both governmental and non-governmental organisations working in the field of Women and Child Development. Besides, playing its nodal role, the Ministry implements certain innovative programmes for women and children. These programmes cover welfare and support services, training for employment and income generation, awareness generation and gender sensitization. These programmes play a supplementary and complementary role to the other general developmental programmes in the sectors of health, education, rural development etc. All these efforts are directed to ensure that women are empowered both economically and socially and thus become equal partners in national development along with men.

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The National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW)

The National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) was launched by the Government of India(GoI) on International Women’s Day in 2010 with the aim to strengthen overall processes that promote all-round Development of Women. It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments.  The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for Women under aegis of various Central Ministries. In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women. The National Resource Center for Women has been set up which functions as a national convergence center for all schemes and programmes for women. It acts as a central repository of knowledge, information, research and data on all gender related issues and is the main body servicing the National and State Mission Authority.

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Western Pacific

(Australia, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Taiwan)

The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG)


  • The RANZCOG will achieve its vision by innovative training, accreditation and continuing education supported by active assessment of the effectiveness of those programs.
  • The College will actively support and communicate with fellows, members and trainees in order to ensure that they are capable, physically, psychologically and professionally, of providing the highest standards of care.
  • The College will support research into women’s health and will act as an advocate for women’s health care, forging productive relationships with individuals, the community and professional organisations both locally and internationally.

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Domestic Violence Prevention Centre – Gold Coast

The Domestic Violence Prevention Centre Gold Coast Inc. works from a feminist perspective and framework. We uphold the belief that structural inequalities in society greatly disadvantage women and children and result in power differentials and violence in interpersonal relationships.  This framework and practice ensures that all clients of the Centre are treated with respect, dignity and equity.  The work we do is guided by the following beliefs:
  • Domestic violence is neither justifiable nor acceptable.
  • The structural and cultural values of this society give power to men;  therefore women are most likely to be the victims of domestic violence.
  • Perpetrators of domestic violence must take responsibility for their actions.
  • Domestic Violence is not a private matter, it is a community concern.
  • The safety of women and children is a vital consideration and should be of primary consideration at all times.

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Australian Government Department of Social Services

The National Plan focuses on the two main types of violent crimes that have a major impact on women in Australia–domestic and family violence and sexual assault. Research shows there is a strong link between violence against women and their children and how people view the roles of women and men. The National Plan focuses on stopping violence before it happens in the first place, supporting women who have experienced violence, stopping men from committing violence, and building the evidence base so that we learn more about ‘what works’ in reducing domestic and family violence and sexual assault.

These changes take time, which is why we need a long-term plan. Each of the four Action Plans build on each other over 12 years, and are designed so that we can look back at what has been achieved and refocus on what actions will make the most difference in the future.

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The Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence

The Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence compiled this report Facts & Stats Report: Domestic Violence in Asian and Pacific Islander Homes, Updated 2015 following a review of published and unpublished studies and reports in the U.S. This updated report includes data from Facts & Stats published in 2009 and studies since then. The study methodology, the presentation of results in the precise terms used by the researchers, and where necessary, the authors’ clarifying comments serve to contextualize the data.

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Women’s College Hospital is the online source for evidence-based, interactive curricula on intimate partner abuse and sexual violence. Each program is designed to enhance the knowledge, skills and practices of those who work with patients or clients who have experienced violence and abuse.

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